FAQ's Page for
Internal Citations and Works Cited

What are Internal Citations?
When do I use Internal Citations?

What is the proper format for using Internal Citations?

(the following information is adapted from the 2003-2006 West York Senior High's Style Guide)
    1. Cite the author's last name and the page number(s) of the source in parentheses.  If no author is present, then you should use the first word present in the reference for that work as it appears on the Works Cited Page.
    2. Place the parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence but before the final period.  Note that there is no punctuation mark between the author's name and the page citation, nor is there any abbreviation before the page number.
One historian argues that the telephone (and certainly the advertising that lauded its innovations) created “a new habit of mind—a habit of tenseness and alertness, of demand and expecting immediate results” (Pennycook 117-18).
  1. Use the author's last name in your sentence and place only the page number(s) of the source in parentheses
  1. Give the author's last name in your sentence when you are citing the entire work rather than a specific section or passage and omit any parenthetical references
  1. If necessary, place the reference at the end of a clause (where a pause would naturally occur) but before the necessary comma
  1.  When the reference documents a long quotation set off from the text, place it at the end of the passage but after the final period
Right after the war, the therapy for all our moral discomforts was the daily recital of the sins of communism and the Soviet Union, and the subsequent healthy enjoyment of our own virtues, or at least our absent sins.  Nothing much was asked beyond reminding ourselves how good we were as a people and a system and that we did not need to suffer the infection of despairing self-criticism.  (126)
  1. Citing one work by an author of two or more works.  The author's name is given, followed by a comma, and the first word in the title (more if both works have the same first word)..
  1. Citing a work by two or several authors
  1. Citing a multivolume work
  1. Citing a work by title – anonymous author  - note that the first word in the reference as listed in the works cited page (usually the first word in the title) is used instead of the author's last name.

Works Cited Page
What is the proper way to set up a "Works Cited" Page?
  1. Start the works cited page on a new page.  Center the words "Works Cited" 1 inch from the top of the page.  Your last name and page number should be continued at the top of the works cited page as you have had it on previous pages.
  2. Your references should be listed in alphabetical order according to the first word in the entry.  This will most often be the author's last name. 
  3. If your reference does not fit in one line, the second line should be indented.
  4. Identify the type of source (Book, Magazine, Electronic Publication) and follow the proper format for that source from the MLA Style Guide Type of Reference Page .  
  5. If you have several sources from the same author on works cited page, use three dashes in place of the author’s name.
(Both works are by Toffler)
Toffler, Alvin, Future Shock.  New York:  Random, 1970.

---, The Third Wave.  New York:  Morrow, 1980.
  1. Note that all entries end with a period.
  2. Do not number your references on a works cited page.
  3. All of your listed references in your Works Cited Page should be cited in your text.  In other words, do not list any sources that you have not used an internal citation for.
  1. A few special word about citing online sources:
    Electronic Publication Format Clarifications

    Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Title of the site. Name of editor of site. Dateof publication.
                Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access <http://www.webaddress.com>.

    ** The above example represents the fullest possible bibliography that you could have.  It is very likely that many of the pieces of information will not present on a web page. In this case, simply omit the absent information from your citation. At the very least, you should always have a title of site, date of access, and URL.

    Smith, John. "When Batteries Die." HowStuffWorks.com. March 2002. 18 September 2004


    "The Role of Cabbage Juice in Acid Titrations." At Home Chemist.  16 April 2005

    1.    Article Title (in quotation marks) and Title of the site (underlined)
    The "article title" would be the title of the specific page that you got your information from. The "Title of site" would be the main name of the site or the "Home Page" name.  For example, if you were reading an article called "Hydrogen Fuel Cells" at Newsweek.com, the article title would be "Hydrogen Fuel Cells" and the Title of the the site would be Newsweek.com.  

    Another example would be if you were visiting Mr Arrow's web page.  The article title would be "Mr. Arrow's Chemistry Page". Since my web page is part of the West York Senior High Web Page, the Title of the site would be West York Senior High Web Page.

    If you can't seem to find the main site name, try clicking on the "Home" link from the page.
    2.    Name of the editor of the site (if given)

    3.    Electronic publication information, including version number (if relevant and if not part of the title),

    • date of electronic publication or of the latest update,
    This is the date that the site was created or last updated.  It may not be present.

    Note that your reference will have 2 dates in it! (the date created and the date you visited it!)
    • and name of any sponsoring institution or organization
    If there is some type of organization that is responsible for publishing the site, then list it here.  An example might be the National Rifle Association.

    If the page is part of an institution such as a college or school, that gets listed here.
    4.    Date of access
    This is the date that you visited the web page and read the information.  This must be entered in Day Month Year format.  Example:  25 July 2005
    • URL
    This would be the full address of the page you are viewing.
    • always include the "http://www........" as part of the URL
    • If you are on a page within frames, you may want to 
    • When posting on the WebBoard, use the square brackets, [] instead of the triangular brackets, <> for your URL.

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