||One historian argues that the
(and certainly the advertising that lauded its innovations) created “a
habit of mind—a habit of tenseness and alertness, of demand and
immediate results” (Pennycook 117-18).
- Use the author's last name in your sentence and place only the page number(s) of the source in parentheses
- EXAMPLE: Pennycook points out that the telephone (and certainly the advertising that lauded its innovations) created “a new habit of mind—a habit of tenseness and alertness, of demanding and expecting immediate results” (117-18).
- Give the author's last name in your sentence when you are citing the entire work rather than a specific section or passage and omit any parenthetical references
- EXAMPLE: Pennycook argues that the history of the telephone is characterized by innovations that have changed public attitudes toward technology.
- If necessary, place the reference at the end of a clause (where a pause would naturally occur) but before the necessary comma
- EXAMPLE: Although Pennycook suggests that in the 50’s nothing much was expected of the good people (126), the placid decade soon produced unexpected turmoil.
- When the reference documents a long quotation set off from the text, place it at the end of the passage but after the final period
- EXAMPLE: Andrew Pennycook’s memory of the 50’s serves as an apt summary of the curiously familiar attitudes of the placid decade:
Right after the war, the therapy for all our moral discomforts was the daily recital of the sins of communism and the Soviet Union, and the subsequent healthy enjoyment of our own virtues, or at least our absent sins. Nothing much was asked beyond reminding ourselves how good we were as a people and a system and that we did not need to suffer the infection of despairing self-criticism. (126)
- Citing one work by an author of two or more works. The author's name is given, followed by a comma, and the first word in the title (more if both works have the same first word)..
- EXAMPLE: Once society reaches a certain stage of industrial growth, it will shift its energies to the production of services (Toffler, Future 221).
- Toffler argues in The Third Wave that society has gone through two eras (agricultural and industrial) and is now entering another—the information age (26).
- Citing a work by two or several authors
- EXAMPLE: Crerar and King interpret the Declaration of Independence as Thomas Jefferson’s attempt to list America's grievances against England (58).
- EXAMPLE: Other historians view the Declaration of Independence as Jefferson’s attempt to formulate the principles of America's political philosophy (Murray et al. 124).
- Citing a multivolume work
- EXAMPLE: Charles Dickens’ initial reluctance to travel to America to lecture new audiences produced considerable consternation to his publishers (Johnson 2: 547).
- Citing a work by title – anonymous author - note that the first word in the reference as listed in the works cited page (usually the first word in the title) is used instead of the author's last name.
- EXAMPLE: The recent exhibit of nineteenth-century patent models at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum featured plans for such inventions as the Rotating Blast-Producing Chair, an Improved, Creeping Doll, and the Life Preserving Coffin: In Doubtful Cases of Actual Death (“Eleventh Hour” 37).
(Both works are by Toffler)
|Toffler, Alvin, Future Shock. New
York: Random, 1970.
---, The Third Wave. New York: Morrow, 1980.
|Electronic Publication Format Clarifications
Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Title of the site. Name of editor of site. Dateof publication.
Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access <http://www.webaddress.com>.
** The above example represents the fullest possible bibliography that you could have. It is very likely that many of the pieces of information will not present on a web page. In this case, simply omit the absent information from your citation. At the very least, you should always have a title of site, date of access, and URL.
|1. Article Title (in
quotation marks) and Title of the site (underlined)
"article title" would be the title of the specific page that you got
information from. The "Title of site" would be the main name of the
or the "Home Page" name. For example, if you were reading an
called "Hydrogen Fuel Cells" at Newsweek.com, the article title would
"Hydrogen Fuel Cells" and the Title of the the site would be Newsweek.com.
Another example would be if you were visiting Mr Arrow's web page. The article title would be "Mr. Arrow's Chemistry Page". Since my web page is part of the West York Senior High Web Page, the Title of the site would be West York Senior High Web Page.
If you can't seem to find the main site name, try clicking on the "Home" link from the page.
|2. Name of the editor of
the site (if given)
|3. Electronic publication
information, including version number (if relevant and if not part of
||This is the date that the site was created
or last updated. It may not be present.
Note that your reference will have 2 dates in it! (the date created and the date you visited it!)
there is some type of organization that is responsible for publishing
site, then list it here. An example might be the National Rifle
If the page is part of an institution such as a college or school, that gets listed here.
|4. Date of access
is the date that you visited the web page and read the information.
must be entered in Day Month Year format. Example: 25 July
||This would be the full address of the page
you are viewing.