Choose one of th following products to analyze:
Listerine Antibacterial Mouthwash
Any brand of Instant Anti-bacterial Hand Soap (the kind you don't use with water)
Any brand of liquid after-shave
Windshield Washer Fluid with De-Icer (such as Prestone De-Icer windshield washer fluuid or Pyroil 50/50 Windshield Washer Fluid
Set-up a data table and record your observations as you perform the following examinations on your product.
the mixture and note any odor
Dip a piece of filter paper in the mixture to
wet one end and try to light it with a match.
Carefully measure the density of
the mixture using a graduated cylinder and balance
Test the solubility of
sugar in a small amount (about 1 ml) of the liquid
A confiscated moonshine
still shows the basic components of a distillation apparatus
the mixture and note any odor. . . Record all observations.
Set up a distillation apparatus as shown in above. (See Mr Arrow after school) Check the following
The top of the thermometer bulb should be just below the side arm of
the distilling flask, ensuring that the entire thermometer bulb will be
bathed in the rising vapor as the liquid mixture is heated.
The side arm should extend beyond the cork in the top end of the
condenser, and the condenser tip should extend beyond the cork in the
adapter. The distillate cannot pick up impurities from the corks when set
up this way.
Both the distilling flask and the condenser must be firmly clamped in
To prevent having a closed system, the lower end of the adapter should
not be connected to the receiver by a cork. This arrangement prevents
pressure from building up and causing an accident.
Begin circulating water from the lower end of the condenser prior to
heating the distilling flask.
Add two or three boiling chips (small marble chips or porcelain chips)
to the distilling flask to prevent superheating and bumping.
Have your teacher check the setup before applying heat to the flask.
Label and number four large test tubes (20- x 150-mm) for collecting
fractions. Place Tube 1 under the condenser outlet.
Remove the thermometer with its cork. By means of a long-stem glass
funnel, add about 20-30 ml 2-propanol-water mixture to the distilling flask.
Gently heat the flask until the liquid begins to boil. Take temperature
readings every half-minute and record these along with the time. Continue
heating just enough to keep the liquid boiling while continuing to take
temperature readings. Continue boiling the liquid until the temperature
remains the same for about 3-4 minutes.
Graphing the data from Step 4 provides the information needed to decide
about the temperature range to collect separate fractions. Do the graphs
before continuing. Repeat the procedure (Steps 3-4) but this time use the
data collected in Step 4 to collect separate fractions of distillate in
tubes #2, #3, and #4. You should be able to detect the presence of at least
three separate fractions, the last one being essentially pure water.
Cautiously smell each fraction and record your observations. Test the
flammability of each fraction by dipping a small piece of paper in each and
trying to ignite the wet paper with a match. Use a balance and graduated
cylinder to measure the density of each fraction. Test the solubility of
sugar in a small amount (about 1 ml) of each fraction. Record all
Thoroughly wash your hands before leaving the laboratory. Data Analysis Questions
Can you tell just by looking that the clear liquid is a mixture?
Does the paper dipped in the liquid burn?
What is the density of the mixture prior to distillation?
What is the density of each fraction?
Does sugar dissolve in each fraction? Implications and Applications
What do you conclude about the composition of each fraction?
On the basis of the tests performed on the original solution and each
fraction, what can you conclude about the composition of each fraction?
What do you think would be the result if you redistilled each fraction
into three fractions of equal volume? Concluding Questions
What are the differences in properties that may be used to separate the
components of a mixture?
What purpose is served in separating the components of mixtures?
How do components of a mixture affect the properties of a mixture?
How does a mixture differ from a compound?
How does a homogeneous mixture differ from a heterogeneous mixture?
What are some household products that are the result of separation
techniques? For more information, at other Web sites...
The Law is Coming from That-a-Way — Article recounting the
life and times of North Carolina Alcoholic Beverage Control Officer Arthur
R. Currin, featuring information on bootleg liquor distillation in American
history and descriptions and photographs of apparatus used by old-time
bootleggers, written by Cynthia M. Currin.
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